The Holocaust: Timeline of Nazi Persecution and Genocide

During World War II, the Nazi dictatorship persecuted Jews, Romanis, homosexuals, disabled persons, and other groups it deemed undesirable. This systematic genocide was known as the Holocaust. The persecution, incarceration, and death of millions of innocent individuals are documented in the Holocaust timeline through a succession of incidents.

The emergence of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, the adoption of anti-Semitic laws and regulations, the building of concentration camps and death camps, and the final rescue of the survivors by Allied troops are some of these events. The Holocaust is still researched and remembered as one of the worst eras in human history, serving as a sharp warning of the perils of prejudice, intolerance, and totalitarianism.

No.Key EventsYearsLeaders
1Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany1933Adolf Hitler
2Dachau concentration camp opens1933Heinrich Himmler
3Nuremberg Laws strip Jews of citizenship1935Adolf Hitler
4Kristallnacht – Nazi attack on Jewish homes and businesses1938Reinhard Heydrich, Joseph Goebbels
5Jews forced to wear yellow stars1941Adolf Hitler
6Final Solution plan for genocide decided1941Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Eichmann
7Wannsee Conference formalizes Final Solution plan1942Reinhard Heydrich
8Deportations of Jews to extermination camps begin1942Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler
9Warsaw Ghetto Uprising1943Mordechai Anielewicz
10Allied forces liberate North Africa1943Dwight D. Eisenhower
11Liquidation of the Lodz Ghetto1944Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Eichmann
12D-Day – Allied invasion of Normandy1944Dwight D. Eisenhower
13Liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau1945Soviet Red Army
14Death of Anne Frank1945Margot Frank, Otto Frank
15Allied forces reach Berlin1945Joseph Stalin, Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill
16Hitler commits suicide1945Adolf Hitler
17Germany surrenders1945Karl Dönitz
18Nuremberg Trials begin1945-1946Allied powers
19Founding of Israel1948David Ben-Gurion
20Adolf Eichmann captured1960Israeli Mossad
21Eichmann trial in Israel1961Israeli judiciary
22Raul Hilberg publishes “The Destruction of the European Jews”1961Raul Hilberg
23Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial opens in Jerusalem1967Israeli government
24Elie Wiesel’s “Night” published1960Elie Wiesel
25Simon Wiesenthal Center founded1977Simon Wiesenthal
26President Reagan visits Auschwitz-Birkenau1984Ronald Reagan
27Steven Spielberg’s “Schindler’s List” released1993Steven Spielberg
28Operation Harvest Festival – Massacre at Majdanek1943Odilo Globocnik
29Liquidation of the Bialystok Ghetto1943SS-Standartenführer Hermann Höfle
30Sobibor extermination camp uprising1943Alexander Pechersky
31Operation Reinhard ends1943Heinrich Himmler
32Warsaw Uprising1944Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski
33Liquidation of Lodz Ghetto1944Hans Biebow
34Liquidation of Lviv Ghetto1944Friedrich Katzmann
35Liquidation of Minsk Ghetto1944SS-Obergruppenführer Curt von Gottberg
36Operation Bagration – Soviet offensive on Eastern Front1944Georgy Zhukov
37Sonderkommando revolt at Auschwitz-BirkenauApr-05Salmen Lewental, Zalmen Gradowski, and others
38Forced march of prisoners from AuschwitzApr-05Heinrich Himmler, Richard Baer
39Liberation of Auschwitz-BirkenauJan-45Red Army
40Red Army liberates WarsawJan-45Konstantin Rokossovsky
41Allied forces liberate concentration camps in GermanyApr-45Dwight D. Eisenhower, George S. Patton, and others
42Suicide of Adolf HitlerApr-45Adolf Hitler
43Liberation of Bergen-Belsen concentration campApr-45British Army
44Death of Anne Frank in Bergen-Belsen concentration campMar-45N/A
45Liberation of Dachau concentration campApr-45US Army
46Nuremberg Trials beginNovember 1945 – October 1946International Military Tribunal
47Establishment of the State of IsraelMay 14, 1948David Ben-Gurion
48The United Nations adopts the Genocide ConventionDec-48N/A
49Eichmann TrialApril-August 1961District Court of Jerusalem
50The construction of the Berlin Wall beginsAug-61East German Government

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