The Byzantine Empire: Key Events and Achievements

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, often known as the Byzantine Empire, continued the Roman Empire in its eastern regions. It existed from the fourth century to the fifteenth century, when it was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Turks, and its capital was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). The Byzantine Empire was a hub of trade, culture, and thought throughout its existence, and it contributed several significant contributions to Western civilisation. This chart lists some of the most significant occasions and accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire.

No.Key EventsYearAchievementsConsequences
1Founding of Byzantium660 BCEEstablishment of a Greek city-stateLater became the center of the Byzantine Empire
2Reign of Justinian I527-565Codification of Roman law, expansion of the empireRestoration of the Roman Empire
3Iconoclasm Controversy726-843Ban on religious images and their venerationSplit in the Christian Church
4Conversion to Orthodoxy867Adoption of the Orthodox branch of ChristianityCultural influence on the Slavic world
5The Fourth Crusade1204Sack of Constantinople, weakening of the Byzantine EmpireFragmentation and decline of the empire
6Fall of Constantinople1453Conquest by the Ottoman Empire, end of the Byzantine eraInfluence on the Renaissance and modern Europe
7Nika Riots532 CEJustinian’s ability to suppress riotsDeath toll estimated between 30,000 to 35,000
8Construction of Hagia Sophia537 CEOne of the largest and most impressive churches in the worldBecame a symbol of Byzantine architecture and Christianity
9Justinian’s Code529-534 CECompilation of Roman lawsInfluenced the development of European legal systems
10Arab-Byzantine Wars634-1180 CEByzantine defense against Arab expansionWeakened the empire’s resources and power
11Iconoclasm726-843 CEDebate over the use of religious iconsContributed to the split between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches
12Schism of 1054 CE1054 CESplit between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churchesPermanently divided Christianity into two major branches
13Komnenian Restoration1081-1185 CEPeriod of stability and prosperity under the Komnenos dynastyRevived the empire’s military and economic power
14Fourth Crusade1204 CESack of Constantinople by CrusadersWeakened the empire and paved the way for Ottoman conquest
16Sack of ConstantinopleApr-03City sacked during Fourth CrusadeWeakening of Byzantine Empire
17Byzantine Renaissance12th-15th centuriesFlourishing of art and literatureCultural and intellectual revival
18Fall of ConstantinopleDec-03Ottoman Empire captures cityEnd of Byzantine Empire

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