Timeline of the Mongol Empire: Key Conquests and Leaders

One of the biggest empires in history, the Mongol Empire spanned from Europe to Asia and was established by Genghis Khan at the beginning of the 13th century. The Mongols conquered enormous areas with their better military strategies and horseback combat, leaving a lasting impression on the areas they occupied. This timeline shows some of the most significant conquests, rulers, and outcomes of the Mongol Empire.

No.Key ConquestsYearsLeadersConsequences
1Conquest of Khwarezmia1219-1221Genghis KhanAcquisition of new territory and wealth
2Conquest of Northern China1211-1234Genghis Khan, SubutaiExpansion of Mongol Empire in East Asia
3Conquest of Central Asia1219-1225Genghis KhanEstablishment of Silk Road trade routes
4Conquest of Eastern Europe1237-1242Batu KhanDevastation of Kiev and other cities
5Conquest of Baghdad1258Hulagu KhanDestruction of the Abbasid Caliphate
6Conquest of Persia1219-1230Subutai, JebeSubjugation of the Islamic world
7Conquest of Russia1237-1240Batu KhanIncorporation of Russian lands into empire
8Conquest of Korea1231-1270Kublai KhanEstablishment of Mongol suzerainty in Korea
9Conquest of Japan1274, 1281Kublai KhanFailed attempts at invading Japan
10Conquest of Song Dynasty1279Kublai KhanEstablishment of the Yuan Dynasty in China
11Conquest of Kievan Rus’1237-1240Batu KhanDestruction of Kiev, decline of Kievan Rus’
12Conquest of Georgia1236-1245Batu Khan, SubutaiIncorporation of Georgia into Mongol Empire
13Conquest of Armenia1235-1240ChormaqanIncorporation of Armenia into Mongol Empire
14Conquest of Baghdad1258Hulagu KhanDestruction of the Abbasid Caliphate
15Conquest of Syria1260Hulagu KhanDefeat of the Ayyubid dynasty, establishment of Mongol rule in Syria
16Conquest of Korea1231-1259SubutaiEstablishment of tributary relationship between Korea and Mongol Empire
17Conquest of Hungary1241-1242SubutaiDevastation of Hungary, spread of Black Death to Europe
18Conquest of Vietnam1257-1288Kublai KhanIncorporation of Vietnam into Mongol Empire
19Conquest of Java1293-1294Mongke TemurIncorporation of Java into Mongol Empire
20Conquest of Japan1274, 1281Kublai KhanFailed invasions of Japan, establishment of trade relations with Japan
21Conquest of Jin Empire1211-1234Genghis Khan, Ögedei KhanMongol rule established in northern China
22Conquest of Khwarezmian Empire1219-1221Genghis KhanEnd of the Khwarezm-Shah dynasty
23Conquest of Western Xia1209-1227Genghis Khan, Ögedei KhanMongol rule established in western China
24Conquest of Volga BulgariaMay-03Subutai, JebeSubjugation of the Bulgarian people
25Conquest of Georgia1220s-1230sSubutai, ChormaqanIncorporation into the Mongol Empire
26Conquest of Tibet1236-1253Güyük Khan, Möngke KhanSubjugation of Tibetans and Buddhists
27Conquest of BaghdadJun-03Hulagu KhanDestruction of the Abbasid Caliphate
28Conquest of SyriaJun-03Hulagu Khan, KitbuqaEnd of Ayyubid dynasty
29Conquest of the Golden Horde1237-1242Batu Khan, SubutaiMongol rule established in Russia
30Conquest of Koryo1231-1259Subutai, ChormaqanMongol rule established in Korea
31Conquest of Song China1235-1279Kublai KhanEnd of the Song dynasty
32Conquest of Dali Kingdom1253-1254Möngke Khan, Kublai KhanMongol rule established in Yunnan, China
33Conquest of Burma1277-1287Kublai Khan, BayanMongol rule established in Burma
34Conquest of Vietnam1257-1288Trần Thủ Độ, Kublai KhanMongol rule established in Vietnam
35Conquest of Sakhalin Island1264-1308N/AIncorporation into the Mongol Empire
36Conquest of Java1293-1294Mongol princes, JayakatwangFailed attempt to conquer Java
37Conquest of Japan1274, 1281Kublai Khan, ArakhanFailed attempts to invade Japan
38Conquest of Champa1282-1283Togan, Kublai KhanMongol rule established in central Vietnam
39Conquest of Siam1278-1281Mengrai, Kublai KhanMongol rule established in northern Thailand
40Siege of Damascus1395-1405TimurWeakened Timurid Dynasty, allowed the rise of Ottoman power
41Battle of Legnica1241Subutai, Batu KhanDevastating defeat for European knights and Polish monarchy
42Invasion of Korea1231-1259Subutai, JebeMongol conquest of Korea and establishment of Goryeo as a vassal state
43Mongol conquest of Tibet1240-1247Godan Khan, Chagatai KhanEstablishment of a Mongol protectorate over Tibet
44Mongol invasion of Japan1274, 1281Kublai KhanFailed invasions and retreat of Mongol forces
45Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate1258Hulagu KhanDestruction of Baghdad, end of the Abbasid Caliphate and Islamic Golden Age
46Mongol invasion of Vietnam1257-1288Kublai KhanMongol conquest of Vietnam and establishment of the Trần dynasty
47Battle of Ain Jalut1260Qutuz, BaibarsDecisive Mamluk victory against Mongol forces in Syria

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