The Renaissance: Key Art, Literature, and Scientific Discoveries

The Renaissance was a time of great cultural and intellectual flourishing in Europe, stretching from roughly the 14th to the 17th century. This period saw great advances in art, literature and science, as well as a renewed interest in classical learning and culture.

Many iconic works of art and literature were created during this period, and important scientific discoveries helped pave the way for modern scientific thought In this table we highlight just a few of the major artistic, literary and scientific achievements of the Renaissance, emerging from this fascinating period of human history Let’s demonstrate the breadth and depth of creativity and innovation.

Sr. No.Key ArtLiteratureYearScientific Discoveries
1Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona LisaNiccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince1513Copernicus’ heliocentric theory
2Michelangelo’s DavidWilliam Shakespeare’s Hamlet1600Galileo’s telescope
3Sandro Botticelli’s The Birth of VenusMiguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote1605Kepler’s laws of planetary motion
4Raphael’s The School of AthensJohn Milton’s Paradise Lost1667Newton’s laws of motion and gravity
5Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini PortraitDante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy1308Vesalius’ On the Fabric of the Human Body
6Donatello’s DavidFrancesco Petrarch’s Sonnets1304Gutenburg’s printing press
7Titian’s Venus of UrbinoGiovanni Boccaccio’s The Decameron1353Harvey’s discovery of blood circulation
8Caravaggio’s The Calling of St. MatthewEdmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene1590Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of microorganisms
9Albrecht Dürer’s Melancholia IThomas More’s Utopia1516Paré’s advances in surgical techniques
10Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Hunters in the SnowMontaigne’s Essays1580Boyle’s law of gases
11Jan Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl EarringMiguel de Cervantes’ Exemplary Novels1613Bacon’s scientific method
12Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Apollo and DaphneFrançois Rabelais’ Gargantua and Pantagruel1532Harvey’s circulation of blood
13Andrea Palladio’s Villa RotondaJohn Donne’s Holy Sonnets1591Torricelli’s mercury barometer
14Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Slaying HolofernesJohn Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress1679Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of bacteria
15Diego Velázquez’s Las MeninasWilliam Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads1798Lavoisier’s law of conservation of mass
16Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona LisaWilliam Shakespeare’s Hamlet1603Galileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons
17Michelangelo’s DavidDante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy1308Copernicus’ heliocentric model of the universe
18Sandro Botticelli’s The Birth of VenusMiguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote1605Kepler’s laws of planetary motion
19Raphael’s School of AthensGeoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales1387Newton’s laws of motion and gravity
20Johannes Vermeer’s The MilkmaidNiccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince1532Galileo’s telescopic observations of the sky
21Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceilingBaldassare Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier1516Vesalius’ On the Fabric of the Human Body
22Titian’s Venus of UrbinoNiccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince1532Harvey’s discovery of blood circulation
23Albrecht Dürer’s Adam and EveDesiderius Erasmus’ The Praise of Folly1509Paracelsus’ development of modern medicine
24Caravaggio’s The Calling of Saint MatthewMiguel de Cervantes’ Don Quixote1605Galileo’s law of falling objects
25Sandro Botticelli’s PrimaveraWilliam Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet1597Boyle’s law of gas pressure

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